The Philippine Campaign Medal was established by paragraph (b) of War Department General Orders Number 5 dated January 12, 1905.
Awarded for qualifying service between the inclusive dates of February 4, 1899, and December 31, 1913.
The Philippine Campaign Medal was awarded for military service in the Philippine Islands under any of the following conditions:
With any of the following expeditions:
ORDER OF PRECEDENCE
The Philippine Campaign Medal was worn after the Puerto Rican Occupation Medal and before the Philippine Congressional Medal.
The only device authorized for the Philippine Campaign Medal was the Silver Citation Star, a five-pointed star three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. When authorized for gallantry in action during the Philippine Insurrection, the Silver Citation Star could be worn on the ribbon of the Philippine Campaign Medal. A total of 578 Silver Citation Stars were retroactively awarded to 659 individuals for gallantry in action during the Philippine Insurrection.
The Philippine Campaign Medal was designed by Francis D. Millet (1846-1912).
Philippine Campaign Medal No. 1 was issued to Major General Charles F. Humphrey.
DESCRIPTION AND SYMBOLISM
In the center of a bronze medallion one and a quarter inches in diameter there is a palm tree bearing coconuts. To the left of the palm tree there is a Roman lamp, and to its right, a scale. These symbols are encircled by the words PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION in raised letters, and the date 1898 (which appears between two bullets at the base of the medal).
The palm tree was often used by Romans on their coins and medals to record their conquests on the southern shores of the Mediterranean, and it was this use which inspired Millet to employ the palm tree as the central theme on the medal (alluding to American conquest in the Pacific). The palm tree also represents the tropical character of the Philippines. The lamp denotes enlightenment. The scales allude to justice, thus the bringing of enlightenment and justice to the Philippines. The date is the year the Philippine Insurrection began.
The reverse shows an eagle with wings displayed, alight upon a trophy consisting of a cannon; six rifles and four standards; an Indian shield; a quiver of arrows and three spears; a Cuban machete and a Sulu kris. The whole is enclosed by a circle composed of the words, UNITED STATES ARMY in the upper half, and thirteen stars in the lower half.
The standards represent the five great wars of the United States as of 1905: the Revolution; the War of 1812; the Mexican War; the Spanish-American War; and the Philippine Insurrection. The weapons suggest the armed resistance offered by the defeated opponents in those wars. The eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, and the thirteen stars allude the original colonies and symbolize unity. The six rifles, four standards, and three spears total thirteen, which is consistent with the thirteen stars at the bottom of the medal
The ribbon consists of a field of dark blue with red stripes just inside each edge. It was designed by Francis D. Millet, who believed that red and blue were, "the favorite colors of the Maylays" and would "suggest a campaign against an uncivilized and remote people."
This medal was first produced by the Philadelphia Mint, and initial strikes were serially numbered on the rim with the No. prefix. The Mint also produced strikes that could be purchased by out-of-service veterans, and these were numbered with the M.No. prefix. Later strikes by strikes were produced by various commercial suppliers and were numbered without prefix.