|Arctic Service Medal (Coast Guard)|
|Armed Forces Service Medal|
|Army of Cuban Occuption Medal|
|Army of Cuban Pacification Medal|
|Army of Occupation Medal (World War II)|
|Cuban Pacification Medal (Navy and Marine Corps)|
|Korea Defense Service Medal|
|Navy Occupation Service Medal (World War II)|
|Puerto Rican Occupation Medal|
War is extremely disruptive: the areas of combat operations typically experience servere damage to economic and agricultural resources as well as the collapse of economic and educational institutions. Indeed, the very fabric of society almost always suffers from severe damage and social disruption. This is why is not enough to win the war; the victors must also win the peace. This can require the establishment of a military occupation to provide the full range of social, economic, and infrastructure services until the defeated country can rise from its ashes and re-establish its basic institutions.
Adding to the difficulty of a post-war environment is actual or potential resistance from the defeated. Following the Second World War the United States spent large sums of money to rebuild Europe under the Marshall Plan. At the same time, war crimes were investigated and their authors prosecuted. The defeated armies were demobilized and their soldiers re-integrated into civilian society.
In the period following the Second World War the United States has been confronted by a much different situation. We did not defeat North Korea (and its allies) militarily; nor did we defeat North Vietnam (and the Viet Cong). We did not defeat the Iraqi government during the First Gulf War (we elected to simply leave after restoring Kuwait, thereby setting the stage for the current war in Iraq). Following the U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq we did not compel the enemy to surrender; indeed, we pushed too quickly for the establishment of a civilian government and sent far too few troops to Afghanistan and Iraq to establish security and separate religious factions who still compete for control. It is virtually certain that there will not be an occupation medals for the War on Terrorism. This is especially so in light of the fact that the fighting seems to be less involved with national governments than with religious and ethnic zealots.